ADS-B Out

ADS-B OUT is a surveillance technology that allows suitably equipped aircraft to broadcast their identity, precise location and other information derived from the relevant on-board avionics systems (such as GNSS and pressure altimeters) through a ADS-B modified Mode S Transponder to ATC (Air Traffic Control).

Aircraft that are equipped with ADS-B IN will be able to receive this information to provide situational awareness and allow self-separation. ADS-B transponders get their positions from the GNSS constellation (GNSS, i.e. GPS, Galileo). Simultaneously they broadcast their own positions and other data to any aircraft or ground station equipped to receive it. Unlike radar technology, ADS-B accuracy does not degrade with range, atmospheric conditions or target audience. It is also able to update the ATC situation display more frequently than a traditional radar.

 

There are mandates already in force in many areas. More mandates are to come into effect in the near future, and you should be aware of them, and keep up to date with their roll-out and any changes:

With thanks to Universal Weather & Aviation, Inc, as of 23 March 2022 the IOMAR understands that the following is correct, however you should always refer to the relevant States AIP for up to date information:

 

Australia

ADS-B is required for all IFR operations at all flight levels over continental Australia, the Arafura Sea (bounded on the north by airway B598), the Great Australian Bight (bounded on the south by airway Q27/L513), and the Bass Strait (bounded on the east by airway H20 and to the southwest by L513). More information can be found on AIP GEN 1.5, ENR 1 | CASA 61/14

CANADA

Starting on February 23, 2023, all flights operating within Canadian Domestic Class A and B airspaces at or above FL125. Starting sometime in 2026, this requirement will extend to the surface.

For more information, see AIC 02/22 or the NavCanada Website.

China

ADS-B is currently required for all flights at or above FL290 if operating in one of the following sectors of the Urumqi CTA. ZWWWAR02, ZWWWAR03, ZWWWAR05 and ZWWWAR06.

For more information, see AIP SUP 08/18

curacao fir

As per AIC 10/19, all flights operating at and above FL290 requires ADS-B.  On 01-JAN-2023, this requirement will extend all the way to the surface.

EUROPE

ADS-B is mandated for all aircraft.  Requirements apply only to instrument flight rule (IFR) flights and only for aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 5700 kg (12,566 lbs.) or greater and/or max cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots (kts).

Transitional Phase

The transitional phase ends on June 7th, 2023.  During this period, an aircraft can be exempt from the mandate based on one of the following.

  • The first individual Certificate of Airworthiness was issued on or after June 7th, 1995 and before December 7th, 2020 and
  • The operator has established a retrofit program prior to December 7th, 2020 that demonstrates compliance prior to June 7th, 2023 (Reference EU No 1207/2011, Article 5, part (c)) and
  • The aircraft has not benefited from EU funding for the retrofit implementation (Reference EU No 1207/2011, Article 5, part (c)).

Exemptions

An aircraft will be exempt from the mandate if they meet one of these criteria.

  • Individual Certificate of Airworthiness first issued before June 7th, 1995, OR
  • Flight purpose is for maintenance or export, OR
  • Operation will cease by 31-OCT-2025

If an aircraft meets any of the exemptions above, enter EUADSBX into the Item 18 SUR/ field of their FPL.

For more information, see (EU) No 1207/2011 and (EU) No 1028/2014 and (EU) 2017/386 and (EU) 2020/587, the latter 3 are amendments to (EU) No 1207/2011 | EASA AMC | ADS-B Europe

French Polynesia / Tahiti (NTTT) FIR

ADS-B is required for all flights in the NTTT FIR since January 1, 2022.  More information is located at AIP ENR 1.6.3.

Hong Kong

ADS-B is required for all operations above FL 285. For more information, see AIP GEN 1.5 and ENR 1.10.

India

The current requirement is for aircraft to be ADS-B equipped in order to operate at or above FL285 for on ATS routes in Indian continental airspace with designators L, M, N, P, Q, T and routes A201, A347, A465, A474, A791, B211, B466, G450, R457, R460, R461, W15, W19, W20, W29, W41, W43, W45, W47, W56S/N, W67, W111, W112, W114, W115, W118, W153. For more information, see AIP SUP 148/18.

Indonesia

ADS-B is required for all flights within Jakarta (WIIF) and Ujung Pandang (WAAF) flight information regions (FIRs) at and above FL 245. Below FL245 ADS-B is required in multiple TMA and CTR airspace as well as parts of Class D and E airspace.  More information can be found at AIP ENR 1.6.

Malaysia

ADS-B is required in both WMFC and WBFC FIRs at all altitudes as of March 25, 2022. More information may be found within AIP SUP 01/20.

New Zealand

Currently, all flights operating within New Zealand where at or above FL245 where Transponder Mandatory Controlled Airspace exists require ADS-B. A second phase to begin on December 31st, 2022, will extend this requirement all the way to the surface.  More information may be found at https://www.nss.govt.nz/ads-b.

 

Singapore

ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL290 within the area bounded by:

073605N 1090045E, 103000N 1140000E, 082500N 1163000E, 032833N 1100532E, 031802N 1093725E, 025514N 1074108E, 033341N 1065534E, 040713N 1063543E, and 073605N 1090045E.

This area includes the following airways: L517, L625, L642, L644, L649, M753, M758, M767, M768, M771, M772, M904, N884, N891, N892, Q801, Q802, Q803, and T611.  

For more information, see AIC 03/20.

SrI LANKA

ADS-B is required within a prescribed area (See AIP SUP 02/20 for more details).

Aircraft manufactured before 01-JAN-2020 must have ADS-B (Out) 1090 MHz applicable to RTCA DO-260, DO-260A, or DO-260B.  Aircraft manufactured on or after 01-JAN-2020 and has an MTOW exceeding 12,566lbs (5,700kgs) or having a maximum cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots must have ADS-B (Out) 1090 MHz applicable to RTCA DO-260B.

For more information, see AIP SUP 02/20.

Taiwan

ADS-B is mandatory for all aircraft operating within the Taipei FIR, at or above FL290. For more information, see ENR 1.8.13

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

ADS-B is required when operating overall 48 continuous states, within airspace at or above FL 100 (excluding airspace from 2,500 ft AGL). At or below FL100 ADS-B will be required;

  • While operating within class B or C airspace;
  • While operating within 12NM of the coastline in the Gulf of Mexico, at or above 3,000 ft MSL.

Requirements for Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are slightly different. The class E requirement does not apply to these areas. ADS-B will be required at or above FL180 and at or below FL100, you will need it when:

  • Operating within class B or C airspace;
  • Operating within 12NM of the coastline.

For the Guam and Northern Mariana Islands (South of 1749N), the only requirements are at or above FL180 and while operating within 12NM of the coastline.

Currently there are no ADS-B requirements for Navassa Island, American Samoa, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Northern Mariana Islands (North of 1749N), Palmyra Atoll and Wake Atoll.

For more details, please read through these references: FAA ADS-B | 14 CFR 91.225 | 14 CFR 91.227 | FAA Final Rule | Airspace.

ADS-B Exemption

ADS-B is required when operating over the U.S. as of Jan. 1, 2020. However, aircraft without the necessary ADS-B capabilities can still operate in U.S. airspace with a single-use route deviation authorization obtained through the FAA’s ADS-B Deviation Authorization Pre-Flight Tool (ADAPT).

To accommodate requests for authorization to deviate from this rule, the web-based tool known as ADAPT was created. As stated in an FAA policy statement (84 Federal Register 12062 dated April 1, 2019), ADAPT is not intended to be used for regular or routine operations by non-equipped aircraft, and your use of ADAPT appears to be regular and/or routine.).

Suppose the FAA denies your requests due to regular and/or routine use. In that case, a one-time authorization may be requested for actual ADS-B equipment installation or ferry of aircraft. 

ADAPT facts:

  • Applies to U.S. airspace route segments only;
  • Only valid for a single route;
  • Applications can be submitted 24 hrs. to 1 hr. in advance of departure;
  • Authorizations are only valid within a +2 hour window of approved ETD.

Vietnam

Currently ADS-B is currently required for all flights at or above FL290 within the VVTS FIR whose MTOW is 5,700kgs or heavier. All flights operating along airways L625, L628, L642, M765. M768, M771, N500 and N892 require ADS-B at or above FL290. 

mongolia

As per ENR 1.6, all flights operating at and above FL290 (8840 meters) requires ADS-B.

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

As per U.A.E. AIP GEN 1.5 and CAR Part IV Aircraft Operations, CAR OPS 1.867 ADS-B is mandated in the Emirates FIR for all IFR aircraft.

mexico

ADS-B is mandated for all Mexican airspace IFR operations as of January 1, 2022.  This does not apply to Mazatlán Oceanic (MMFO). More information at AIC 04/20.

new caledonia / nfff fir

Starting on January 01, 2022, all flights operating within the New Caledonia sector of the Nandi (NFFF) FIR requires ADS-B.  For more information, see AIP PAC-N GEN 1.5.

south africa

As of this writing South Africa has yet to set an implementation date for their ADS-B mandate.

Colombia

Starting on April 30th, 2022 ADS-B is required for all flights within Colombia airspace, at all flight levels. For more information, see RAC 4 4.2.2.6.

saudi arabia

As per GACAR 91.477 (b)(1)(vi) ADS- B will be mandated starting on January 1st, 2023, in class A, E, and B/C/D (around major airports).

 

SeYCHELLES

The initial mandate that was supposed to go into effect on June 7th, 2020, has been delayed indefinitely per AIC 10/20.  Based on AIC 01/19, the mandate that is to be applied sometime in the future is as follows: All flights within the Seychelles (FSSS) FIR require ADS-B. Some automatic exemptions are available such as; STATE aircraft, small aircraft, and others. See AIC 01/19 and AIC 10/20 for more information.

For all other current and future mandated airspace

Please refer to the relevant authority in each State in whose airspace you intend to operate.

EQUIPMENT VERSIONS

All mandates in effect currently require your ADS-B equipment to meet the requirements for 1090ES (1090 MHz), while some areas (USA) also allow 978 UAT (978 MHz) equipment to be used.  Be sure you have the correct version to operate where you are going.

1090 MHz

Version                FAA/RTCA                           Europe/EUROCAE

0                              260                                         —

1                              260A                                      ED-102

2                              260B                                      ED-102A

3                              260C                                      ED-102B

978 MHz

Version                FAA/RTCA

0                              282

1                              282A

2                              282B

3                              282C

An ADS-B OUT mandate is established by a State which requires to enhance and extend the surveillance of their ATC systems, requiring all aircraft operating in the specific mandated airspace under their control to have a certified GPS position source and a transponder capable of transmitting data from the aircraft without input from the pilot or a request from ATC.

What is ADS-B OUT? ADS-B OUT is a surveillance technology that allows suitably equipped aircraft to broadcast their identity, precise location and other information

Automatic –The signal is always transmitting and requires no use input.

Dependant – Because it relies on on-board systems to provide surveillance information via the satellite system to other parties.

Surveillance – The system provides surveillance – similar to radar.

Broadcast – Because the data including aircraft position, velocity and direction is broadcast to an ADS-B ground station– and the originating source has no knowledge of who receives the data and there is no interrogation or two way contract.

ADS-B replaces or supplements radar surveillance of aircraft.  This new system provides ATC with more precise and accurate position data for aircraft, potentially allowing more aircraft to operate in a smaller area with no reduction in safety margins. Consequently aircraft may be able to fly more direct routes, saving time, reducing fuel consumption and emissions.

Aircraft equipped with an ADS-B transmitter use GPS technology to determine the position of the aircraft and then this position is broadcast, along with the aircraft identification,  altitude and velocity information in real time. This is known as “extended squitter”.  Air traffic control systems receive this flight data and are then able to position and separate aircraft with improved precision and timing.

ADS-B is key to both the Single European Sky (SES) and United States Next Generation Air Transport System (NextGen) performance objectives and by introducing ADS-B in to the surveillance infrastructure provides improved features which will include;

  • Surveillance from ‘gate to gate’
  • Surveillance data provided directly from the on-board systems
  • Improved safety due to more accurate position reporting
  • Improved visibility for ATC
  • Increased capacity in handling aircraft in congested airspace
  • Cost efficiency
  • Improvement of environment sustainability – reduction in CO2 emissions
  • Reduced RF pollution
  • Enhanced use of optimal flight levels
  • Diminishing vulnerability to human errors
  • Provision of air traffic control in remote areas
  • Global Interoperability – using the 1090 MHz Mode S Extended Squitter technology world wide- note at local or regional level other data link technologies can be considered, e.g. UAT system in the USA which uses 978 MHz for operation under 18,000 feet.

A 1090 MHz Mode S extended squitter transponder combined with a certified GPS navigational source such as WAAS GPS. ABS-B relies on a high-integrity GPS navigation source and a data link (ADS-B unit).  There are several types of certified ADS-B data links, but the most common ones operate on 1090 MHz, which is a modified transponder (transponder with an extended squitter), e.g. Transponder upgrade to ADS-Bv2 (ED102A/DO260B) and low latency GNSS receiver transponder wiring.

ADS-B ground stations are line-of-sight facilities. The ability for a ground station to received ADS-B data from an aircraft depends on altitude, distance from the site and obstructing terrain.

When operating outside of radar coverage, ADS-B derived ATS surveillance services may be provided to operators of aircraft that are ADS-B Out enabled, whilst within the coverage volume of commissioned ADS-B ground stations. ADS-B ground stations are significantly cheaper to install and operate compared to primary and secondary radar systems used by ATC for aircraft separation and control. ADS-B ground receivers are currently used but space based ADS-B is currently in development.

Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) is a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance capability that enables air traffic controllers to track aircraft flying into and out of airports in areas with limited radar coverage.

WAM provides surveillance through a network of small sensors deployed in remote areas. WAM sensors are inexpensive compared to multi-million dollar radar installations and much easier to install around airports in remote areas and even on mountain tops. A half-dozen sensors can cover a wide swath of previously unobserved airspace.

The sensors send out signals that interrogate aircraft transponders which, in turn, transmit a response. Computers analyse those responses and calculate the precise location of aircraft using time-difference-of-arrival techniques. The aircraft’s position and identification information are then transmitted to air traffic controllers, who use the surveillance data to safely separate aircraft.

Q: Will DO-260 or DO-260A compliant systems be sufficient to meet mandated requirements in the US or Europe?

A: No. The US and Europe and China are requiring DO-260B for ADS-B Out compliance and access to airspace. Service bulletins are available to upgrade your transponder to be DO-260B compliant.

Q: Does the European mandate affect my aircraft?

A: For Aircraft with a Civilian Registration operating IFR/GAT in Europe are required to carry and operate Mode S Level 2s (i.e. with SI code capability) transponder(s) with Mode S Elementary Surveillance (ELS) capability.

Aircraft operating IFR/GAT in Europe and with a maximum certified take-off mass exceeding 5 700 kg or having a maximum cruising true airspeed capability greater than 250 knots are required to carry and operate Mode S Level 2s transponder(s) with Mode S Elementary Surveillance (ELS), Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) (for fixed wing aircraft) and ADS-B 1090MHZ Extended Squitter (ES) capabilities. The applicability dates for this requirement is 7th June 2020.

Note that aircraft operating under a civilian registration that do not meet specific criteria may be granted an exemption against the Mode S EHS requirements.