ADS-B OUT is a surveillance technology that allows suitably equipped aircraft to broadcast their identity, precise location and other information derived from the relevant on-board avionics systems (such as GNSS and pressure altimeters) through a ADS-B modified Mode S Transponder to ATC (Air Traffic Control).
Aircraft that are equipped with ADS-B IN will be able to receive this information to provide situational awareness and allow self-separation. ADS-B transponders get their positions from the GNSS constellation (GNSS, i.e. GPS, Galileo). Simultaneously they broadcast their own positions and other data to any aircraft or ground station equipped to receive it. Unlike radar technology, ADS-B accuracy does not degrade with range, atmospheric conditions or target audience. It is also able to update the ATC situation display more frequently than a traditional radar.
There are mandates already in force in many areas, such as:
|Taiwan||Vietnam||New Zealand||French Polynesia / Tahiti (NTTT) FIR|
More mandates are to come into effect in the near future, and you should be aware of them, and keep up to date with their roll-out and any changes:
With thanks to Universal Weather & Aviation, Inc, as of 1st August 2019 the IOMAR understands that the following is correct, however you should always refer to the relevant States AIP for up to date information:
CURRENTLY ACTIVE MANDATES
ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL290 on airways L642 and M771.
ADS-B is currently required for all flights at or above FL290 if operating in one of the following sectors of the Urumqi CTA. ZWWWAR02, ZWWWAR03, ZWWWAR05 and ZWWWAR06.
For more information, see AIP SUP 08/18
ADS-B is required for all flights within Jakarta (WIIF) and Ujung Pandang (WAAF) flight information regions (FIRs) at or above FL290.
For more information, see AIP SUP 18/17 and AIP ENR 1.8
ADS-B is required for all operations at or above FL 290 within the area bounded by: 073605N 1090045E, 040713N 1063543E, 041717N 1061247E (MABLI), 044841N 1052247E (DOLOX), 045223N 1041442E (ENREP), 045000N 1034400E, thence north along the Singapore FIR boundary to 070000N 1080000E. This area includes the following airways: L642, L644, M753, M771, M904, N891, N892, Q801, Q802, Q803 and T611.
For more information see AIP ENR 1.8-1
Airways B576 and B591 within Taiwan airspace currently require ADS-B compliance, in order to operate at or above FL290.
Currently ADS-B is required for all flights at or above FL290 within the VVTS FIR whose MTOW is 15,000kgs or heavier. All flights operating along airways L625, L628, L642, M765. M768, M771, N500 and N892 require ADS-B at or above FL290.
Starting January 1st 2020 the MTOW requirement noted above will be reduced to 5,700kgs.
All flights operating within the NZZC FIR at or above FL245 require ADS-B.
A second phase to begin on December 31st, 2021 is currently proposed and not yet part of the mandate, but would require all flights within the NZZC FIR to have operational ADS-B equipment.
French Polynesia / Tahiti (NTTT) FIR
Aircraft flying at or above FL200 require to be ADS-B equipped.
Starting on January 1st 2022 the mandate will then expand to include the entire NTTT FIR. For more information, see AIC PAC-P A08/18
STARTING 31 DECEMBER 2019
ADS-B will be required in order to operate from FL290 to FL410 (inclusive) along the airway segments listed below. For more information, see AIC 03/17.
|B466 (ANOKO-TOSOK)||L510 (EMRAN-GIVAL)||L645 (SAMAK-SAPAM)||N571 (IGOGU-VAMPI)|
|P574 (NOPEK-ANSAX)||P627 (POVUS-RUSET)||P628 (IGREX-GIVAL)|
ADS-B will become mandatory for all aircraft operating within the Taipei FIR, at or above FL290. For more information, see AIP SUP 06/16.
sTARTING 1 January 2020
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Starting January 1, 2020, you must be equipped with ADS-B Out to fly in most controlled airspace:
If you fly in this airspace you must be equipped with ADS-B
|Class B||Generally, from surface to 10,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) including the airspace from portions of Class Bravo that extend beyond the Mode C Veil up to 10,000 feet MSL (e.g. SEA, CLE, PHX)|
|Class C||Generally, from surface up to 4,000 feet MSL including the airspace above the horizontal boundary up to 10,000 feet MSL|
|Class E||Above 10,000 feet MSL over the 48 states and DC, excluding airspace at and below 2,500 feet AGL. Over the Gulf of Mexico at and above 3,000 feet MSL within 12 nautical miles of the coastline of the United States|
|Mode C Veil||Airspace within a 30 NM radius of any airport listed in Appendix D, Section 1 of Part 91 (e.g. SEA, CLE, PHX) from the surface up to 10,000 feet MSL|
Any airspace that requires the use of a Transponder today will on January 01, 2020 also require aircraft to be equipped with a Version 2 ADS-B Out system. This can be either a 1090ES (DO-260B) ADS-B system or a UAT (DO-282B) ADS-B system.
For aircraft operating above FL180 (18,000 ft.) or to comply with ADS-B mandates outside the United States, you must be equipped with a Mode-S transponder-based ADS-B transmitter. For aircraft operating below 18,000 ft. and within the United States ADS-B rule airspace, you must be equipped with either a Mode-S transponder-based ADS-B transmitter or with UAT equipment.
Currently ADS-B is currently required for all flights at or above FL290 within the VVTS FIR whose MTOW is 15,000kgs or heavier. All flights operating along airways L625, L628, L642, M765. M768, M771, N500 and N892 require ADS-B at or above FL290. Starting January 1st, 2020 the MTOW requirement noted above will be reduced to 5,700kgs.
ADS-B required for all flights within Colombia airspace, at all flight levels.
For more information, see RAC 4 188.8.131.52.
The recently published AIP SUP 148/18 identifies that on January 1st 2019 India will begin enforcing a mandate for ADS-B.
The mandate will require aircraft to be ADS-B equipped in order to operate at or above FL285 for on ATS routes in Indian continental airspace with designators L, M, N, P, Q, T and routes A201, A347, A465, A474, A791, B211, B466, G450, R457, R460, R461, W15, W19, W20, W29, W41, W43, W45, W47, W56S/N, W67, W111, W112, W114, W115, W118, W153.
NOTE: The date of implementation for the mandate has been delayed by one year to January 1st 2020.
STARTING 8 JanUARY 2020
ADS-B will be required for all operations at or above FL290 over continental Australia, the Arafura Sea (bounded on the north by airway B598), the Great Australian Bight (bounded on the south by airway Q27/L513) and the Bass Strait (bounded on the east by airway H20 and to the southwest by L513).
Australia published ADS-B mandate changes in 2016, which has allowed some operators of non-ADS-B equipped aircraft to continue to operate below FL290, for a limited period. However, beginning Jun 06, 2020, ADS-B will be required for all IFR flights, above or below FL290, across the continent.
Note: ADS-B is required for all Australian registered aircraft if operating in Class A, B, C or E airspace within the minor arc of a circle that starts 500 nautical miles (NM) true north from Perth (YPPH) and finishes 500 NM true east from YPPH. For more information, see AIP GEN 2.2 CASA 114/16.
STARTING 6 June 2020
ADS-B will be required for all IFR flights, above or below FL290, across the continent. For more information, see AIP GEN 2.2 CASA 114/16.
STARTING 7 June 2020
ADS-B is mandated for all aircraft with certificates of airworthiness issued on or after January 8th 2015. Requirements apply only to IFR flights and only for aircraft with a MTOW of 5700kg or greater and/or max cruising true airspeed (TAS) greater than 250 knots (kts). For more information, see EC No 1207/2011 and EC No 1028/2014 (AMDT to 1207/2011).
In 2014, Europe delayed certain ADS-B implementation requirements, to exempt some operators from ADS-B requirements for another two to six years, depending upon when the aircraft was manufactured.
Be aware that commencing June 7th 2020, ADS-B will be mandated for all IFR flights for aircraft with MTOW of 5700kg or greater and/or maximum cruising TAS greater than 250 kts.
STARTING 31 DECEMBER 2021
On December 31st 2018 all flights operating within the NZZC FIR at or above FL245 will require ADS-B.
A second phase to begin on December 31st 2021 is currently proposed and not yet part of the mandate, but would require all flights within the NZZC FIR to have operational ADS-B equipment.
STARTING 1 JANUARY 2022
French Polynesia / Tahiti (NTTT) FIR
A mandate came into effect on January 1st 2019. Aircraft flying at or above FL200 will require to be ADS-B equipped. Starting on January 1st 2022 the mandate will then expand to include the entire NTTT FIR. More information located at AIC PAC-P A08/18
For all other current and future mandated airspace
Please refer to the relevant authority in each State in whose airspace you intend to operate.
An ADS-B OUT mandate is established by a State which requires to enhance and extend the surveillance of their ATC systems, requiring all aircraft operating in the specific mandated airspace under their control to have a certified GPS position source and a transponder capable of transmitting data from the aircraft without input from the pilot or a request from ATC.
What is ADS-B OUT? ADS-B OUT is a surveillance technology that allows suitably equipped aircraft to broadcast their identity, precise location and other information
Automatic –The signal is always transmitting and requires no use input.
Dependant – Because it relies on on-board systems to provide surveillance information via the satellite system to other parties.
Surveillance – The system provides surveillance – similar to radar.
Broadcast – Because the data including aircraft position, velocity and direction is broadcast to an ADS-B ground station– and the originating source has no knowledge of who receives the data and there is no interrogation or two way contract.
ADS-B replaces or supplements radar surveillance of aircraft. This new system provides ATC with more precise and accurate position data for aircraft, potentially allowing more aircraft to operate in a smaller area with no reduction in safety margins. Consequently aircraft may be able to fly more direct routes, saving time, reducing fuel consumption and emissions.
Aircraft equipped with an ADS-B transmitter use GPS technology to determine the position of the aircraft and then this position is broadcast, along with the aircraft identification, altitude and velocity information in real time. This is known as “extended squitter”. Air traffic control systems receive this flight data and are then able to position and separate aircraft with improved precision and timing.
ADS-B is key to both the Single European Sky (SES) and United States Next Generation Air Transport System (NextGen) performance objectives and by introducing ADS-B in to the surveillance infrastructure provides improved features which will include;
- Surveillance from ‘gate to gate’
- Surveillance data provided directly from the on-board systems
- Improved safety due to more accurate position reporting
- Improved visibility for ATC
- Increased capacity in handling aircraft in congested airspace
- Cost efficiency
- Improvement of environment sustainability – reduction in CO2 emissions
- Reduced RF pollution
- Enhanced use of optimal flight levels
- Diminishing vulnerability to human errors
- Provision of air traffic control in remote areas
- Global Interoperability – using the 1090 MHz Mode S Extended Squitter technology world wide- note at local or regional level other data link technologies can be considered, e.g. UAT system in the USA which uses 978 MHz for operation under 18,000 feet.
A 1090 MHz Mode S extended squitter transponder combined with a certified GPS navigational source such as WAAS GPS. ABS-B relies on a high-integrity GPS navigation source and a data link (ADS-B unit). There are several types of certified ADS-B data links, but the most common ones operate on 1090 MHz, which is a modified transponder (transponder with an extended squitter), e.g. Transponder upgrade to ADS-Bv2 (ED102A/DO260B) and low latency GNSS receiver transponder wiring.
ADS-B ground stations are line-of-sight facilities. The ability for a ground station to received ADS-B data from an aircraft depends on altitude, distance from the site and obstructing terrain.
When operating outside of radar coverage, ADS-B derived ATS surveillance services may be provided to operators of aircraft that are ADS-B Out enabled, whilst within the coverage volume of commissioned ADS-B ground stations. ADS-B ground stations are significantly cheaper to install and operate compared to primary and secondary radar systems used by ATC for aircraft separation and control. ADS-B ground receivers are currently used but space based ADS-B is currently in development.
Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) is a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance capability that enables air traffic controllers to track aircraft flying into and out of airports in areas with limited radar coverage.
WAM provides surveillance through a network of small sensors deployed in remote areas. WAM sensors are inexpensive compared to multi-million dollar radar installations and much easier to install around airports in remote areas and even on mountain tops. A half-dozen sensors can cover a wide swath of previously unobserved airspace.
The sensors send out signals that interrogate aircraft transponders which, in turn, transmit a response. Computers analyse those responses and calculate the precise location of aircraft using time-difference-of-arrival techniques. The aircraft’s position and identification information are then transmitted to air traffic controllers, who use the surveillance data to safely separate aircraft.
Q: I already have ADS-B OUT approval from IOMAR for my DO-260/DO-260A compliant system. If I upgrade my transponder to be DO-260B compliant do I need a new approval?
Q: Will DO-260 or DO-260A compliant systems be sufficient to meet mandated requirements in the US or Europe?
A: No. The US and Europe and China are requiring DO-260B for ADS-B Out compliance and access to airspace. Service bulletins are available to upgrade your transponder to be DO-260B compliant.
Q: Does the European mandate affect my aircraft?
A: For Aircraft with a Civilian Registration operating IFR/GAT in Europe are required to carry and operate Mode S Level 2s (i.e. with SI code capability) transponder(s) with Mode S Elementary Surveillance (ELS) capability.
Aircraft operating IFR/GAT in Europe and with a maximum certified take-off mass exceeding 5 700 kg or having a maximum cruising true airspeed capability greater than 250 knots are required to carry and operate Mode S Level 2s transponder(s) with Mode S Elementary Surveillance (ELS), Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) (for fixed wing aircraft) and ADS-B 1090MHZ Extended Squitter (ES) capabilities. The applicability dates for this requirement is 7th June 2020.
Note that aircraft operating under a civilian registration that do not meet specific criteria may be granted an exemption against the Mode S EHS requirements.